Saturday, February 8, 2020
My father is a serious person - Essay Example Growing up, we only saw our father during the holidays. Even then, mother had to force us to pack up; as we barely knew him, it was always awkward during the first days of the holidays. However, though there was this need to connect with him at an emotional level, the time never seemed right. My father had always been a prim proper man who always seemed too busy on the phone, talking up a client or trying to close a deal. He barely had enough to time to sit and enjoy a meal. Learning to ride a bicycle, I only rode with my uncle. I am told that my father was right there throughout the learning period. I do not remember it. When I broke my collar bone back in elementary school, all I remember was seating at the back of the car and my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s worried face as we drove to the hospital. I do not recall who the driver was though it was him behind the wheel. In my recollections of the past, I can barely recall interacting with my father. All are but stories I had tried to no avail to combine to form a picture. Dentist appointments, first day at school, graduation ceremonies, birthday parties Ã¢â¬â he was always there. He never missed any of them. This is no longer the case now, and we are now inseparable. Like there was never a gap in our relationship. A life threaten ing experience can really change how people relate. Twelve years ago I was taken ill with a very funny ailment. My whole body was itchy and I could not stop scratching myself against anything in site. On seeing a doctor, we discovered that my kidney had been failing and had been getting treatment for the symptoms during hospital visits. This came as a shock to the family, considering I had to be put on dialysis as soon as possible and a drastic change in dietary needs. It was thought that I needed a kidney transplant, and being on a waiting list could take years before I get a donor. Either way I was evaluated for insurance purposes and my name
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Ethnic Groups in Pakistan Essay Recommended Citation Khan, Adeel, Ethnic nationalism and the state in Pakistan, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Faculty of Arts, University of Wollongong, 2001. http://ro. uow. edu. au/theses/1736 Research Online is the open access institutional repository for the University of Wollongong. For further information contact the UOW Library: [emailprotected] edu. au Ethnic Nationalism and the State in Pakistan A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from University of Woilongong by Adeel Khan Sociology Program, Faculty of Arts February 2001 Declaration I, Adeel Khan, declare that this thesis, submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy, in the Sociology Program of Faculty of Arts, University of Woilongong, is wholly my own work unless otherwise referenced or acknowledged. The document has not been submitted for qualifications at any other academic institution. Adeel Khan 26 February 2001 11 Aknowledgements I would like to thank the Sociology Program and the School of Critical Enquiry at the University of Woilongong for helping me to travel to Pakistan twice to do my fieldwork. In Pakistan there are too many people who have helped me in many different ways. I am grateful to all those academics, journalists, politicians, lawyers and activists who spared their time to speak to me. I would like to especially thank Mazhar Abbas who not only provided me with very useful information and contacts but also arranged meetings with the MQM leaders. I am indebted to Ahmed Shah and Ayub Shiekh for organising one of the most entertaining as well as productive trips to Hyderabad where they arranged meetings with Ibrahim Joyo and Rasul Bux Palejo and other Sindhi nationalists. In Lahore I had the pleasure of Khawar Malik and Imtiaz Alams company in one of the most dramatic months in Pakistans history when the chief justice and the prime minister were caught in a bizarre battle of ego that had created a serious political crisis. In Quetta, Abdul Sami Kakar, a former Pukhtim Student Federation activist, who was introduced to me by Tahir Mohammad Khan, was a wonderful company and great help in organising interviews with Baloch and Pukhtun nationalists. In Islamabad I shall always miss late Eqbal Ahmed with whom I had some of the most stimulating discussions. My supervisor, Stephen Castles, has been an unrelenting source of encouragement and inspiration. He not only encouraged me to think as deeply and as critically as possible but also, at times, forced me to explore different aspects of the argument whenever he felt I could do better. I have particularly benefited from Stephens knowledge of European history. What impressed me the most about Stephen, however, is that he is one of those people who are so comfortable with themselves that they hardly care what others think of them, and therefore they are unassuming and full of humility. I wish I could learn that from him, too. My wife, Rafat, deserves more than a few words of gratitude for she is the one who had to put up with my anxiety, self-doubt, writers block, mood swings, and all the other hazards that come with a person who agrees with Adomo that (o)nly those thoughts are frue which fail to understand themselves. I stand obliged to her for bearing with me. As is customary, and in legal terms, too, I must admit that only I am responsible for the mistakes and weaknesses in my work, but as I have made it obvious that I would not have been able to produce this work without the help of all those mentioned above, and therefore, morally at least, they cannot escape the responsibility. The only consolation I can offer to them is that I apologise for the mistakes and weaknesses and promise to try harder, next time, to fail better. Ill Abstract Nationalism is a way of dealing with a world where everything melts into thin air. It is a form of self-love in which individuals celebrate their collective identity. And like all forms of self-love it gets its strength more from the hatred of others than its love for the self Here lies the secret behind some of the most intractable conflicts in the world. Nationalism is, probably, the only form of self-love that gets its life-blood from an institution, the modem state. Had the state not been behind the self-love of the Germans, they would not have been able to torture and murder so many Jews in such a short period of time. Likewise, had the west not helped the Jews to establish their own state in Palestine, the Jews would never have been able to displace and kill so many Palestinians. Nationalism is not the pathology of the modem world, but is, as a sentiment and as a doctrine, only a pathetic way to deal with a pathetic world. But nationalism as a game of power, as a politics, is lethal and destructive. As a sentiment and as a doctrine nationalism may be the child of an unstable and fast changing world but as a politics it is the child of the nation state. This thesis explores the relationship between the nation-state and the nationalisms of four ethnic groups, namely, Pukhtun, Sindhi, Baloch and Mohajir, who have, at various points in time, contested the legitimacy of the administrative structure of the Pakistani state. It starts with identifying the issue of ethnic conflicts, goes on to review the available literature and then outlines a framework for studying ethnic IV nationalism. As the emphasis here is on the role of the modem state in provoking ethnic discontent and resistance the second chapter discusses the interventionist role of the state and tries to highlight its relationship with nationalism. The second section of the chapter looks at various approaches to nationalism and explains as to which approach is more suitable and why for dealing with ethnic nationalism. The third chapter endeavours to explicate the difference between pre-colonial and colonial state in India as well as the way the colonial state despite being modem was different from the modem state system in the west. The fourth chapter discusses the state system in Pakistan and argues that the postcolonial state is a replica of the colonial state. The next four chapters examine the emergence of four ethnic movements and their varying strategies for dealing with the centralising and homogenising policies of the state. Throughout, the focus remains on the ethnic groups distance from and proximity to the state system as the major factor in determining their relationships. Table of Contents Declaration Acknowledgments Abstract 11 iii iv Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Introduction Nationalism and the State Colonisation of the State in India Nationalisation of the Colonial State in Pakistan Pukhtun Ethnic Nationalism: From Separatism to Integrationism Baloch Ethnic Nationalism: From Guerilla War to Nowhere? Sindhi Ethnic Nationalism: Migration, Marginalisation, and the Threat of Indianisation Mohajir Ethnic Nationalism: El Dorado gone Sour! At a Crossroads as Ever Before! 1 24 45 67 99 133 Chapter 7 158 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 201 238 References Appendix A Interviews 244 259 VI The whole is the false Adomo Inversion of Hegels famous dictum, the whole is the true (1978:50) Vll Please see print copy for image Source: 1998 Census (Statistical Pocket Book of Pakistan, 2000) PAKISTAN.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Chivalry is Yet, Not Dead In some select stories of old/middle english, we can see that people have been fascinated by ideals of heroism, chivalry, and what we now refer to as romance for a very long time. I will argue in this document, that our fascination with such imaginary laws has never ceased, and in some ways is even more fantastic. Every further mention of romance will refer to all of these ideas, the way it did when the term was introduced into english. If all things are to be considered this short essay would turn into a book. I would like to compare and contrast Beowulf, Lanval, and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight with some of the modern day creations especially in looking at the values, and belief systems in all of the three Ã¢â¬Å"classicÃ¢â¬ stories. I will apologize in advance to those who will read this and are not familiar to the texts that are mentioned, due to restrictions in size I must mention all of my topics without specific description of how the stories are told, please at least re ad Ã¢â¬Å"BeowulfÃ¢â¬ before considering this essay. Beowulf has and will live in the hearts of many people today, whether they have actually read and studied the text itself or they have merely been exposed to modern movies, books, and music that idealize a classical heroic ideal.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã We might consider in this topic the modern police officer, soldier, paramedic, FBI/CIA agent, and any who take on with their livelihood the motto Ã¢â¬Å"to protect and to serve.Ã¢â¬ I believe we will most likely see and inherent desire for honor, and for glory. These in certain individuals seem to overpower the desire and will to help other people. A scholar by the name of George P. Fletcher states when looking at romanticism and its opposites, Ã¢â¬Å"On the one hand, we have stability, order, universality, and the boredom of the predictable and domestic. On the other hand, we have revolt, disorder, partiality, and the intense flames of lust and creativity. This is, of course, the way Romantics might describe the sentiments that move themÃ¢â¬ (p. 17). He even goes on to hint that the reason we have waged war on Iraq was because of romantic ideas. We'll stay away from that debate in this essay and just say that the idea of glory and honor is summed up completely in Ã¢â¬Å"BeowulfÃ¢â¬ by the line Ã¢â¬ Heaven swallowed the smokeÃ¢â¬ (L. 3155), in Lanval when he will not lie, despite the costs, despa... ...ork: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Norton. 2000. Alexander, Michael, trans. Beowulf. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973. Bradley, S. A. J., trans. Ã¢â¬Å"Beowulf.Ã¢â¬ Anglo-Saxon Poetry: An Anthology of Old English Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Poems in Prose Translation with Introduction and Headnotes by S. A. J. Bradley. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Everyman's Library. London and Melbourne: Dent, 1982. Chaucer, Geoffrey. Ã¢â¬Å"The Canterbury Tales.Ã¢â¬ The Norton Anthology of English Literature: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 6th edition New York: Norton. 1996 Donaldson, E. Talbot. Ã¢â¬Å"Beowulf: A New Prose Translation.Ã¢â¬ The Norton Anthology of Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã English Literature: 6th edition. New York: Norton. 1996. Fletcher, George P. Romantics at War. Princeton: Princeton UP. 2002 Laven, David, and Lucy Riall. Napoleon's Legacy: Problems of Government in Restoration Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Europe. Berg. 2000
Monday, January 13, 2020
Kmart was formed in the late 1950's to challenge new forms of discount stores. They are a descendant of an organization Sebastian S. Kresge. The average Kmart store is around 100,000 square feet. In 1987 Kmart was the largest discount retailer in the United States. They currently have 2,223 stores and last year they had over $25 billion in sales which is nearly double that of Wal-Mart. In 1991 they opened their Kmart superstores. The superstore is a 150,000 square feet and is expected to gross $40 to $50 million dollars in revenues. It will also remain open 24 hours a day. One symptom is that Wal-Mart has lower prices than Kmart which makes them very hard to compete with. Kmart has to try to get out of the really urban areas so they can compete more realistically with Wal-Mart. They need to keep their appearance and service above par or this also will result in problems. Kmart's biggest problem is obviously the widespread of Wal-Mart all over the United States. They have to find a way to compete with Wal-Mart's regional distribution centers. These centers ensure the Wal-Mart customers that they are going to get the best product for the best price. Since Kmart does not have these centers they still need to pay all of the fees that deal with shipping and handling. Kmart needs to do something quick. In a recent survey 49% of people said that they would drive right past a Kmart to go to a Wal-Mart. The average Wal-Mart customer visits the store 32 times in a year, meanwhile the average Kmart customer only visits 15 times in a year. They have to be in financial trouble since they are getting pressure from vendors to pay their bills on time. Kmart needs to find a certain area that they are better at then Wal-Mart. They are not going to be able to beat their prices so they have to provide better customer service. They have select a specialized department that they can dominate and at least take away a little of the business from Wal-Mart. For example develop a top of the line auto care station for tune ups, inspections, oil changes etc. They have to research and find rare products that Wal-Mart does not carry. If it is at all possible try to lower their prices so that they provide more competition for Wal-Mart. Kmart needs to develop a way to get their products for a lower price. As already said they should come up with an idea similar to Wal-Mart's regional distribution centers. They also need to develop physical distribution management. I think if they use the idea of regional centers it will greatly increase their product flow.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The Battle of Guam was fought July 21 to August 10, 1944, during World War II (1939-1945). Originally an American possession, the island of Guam had been lost to the Japanese during the opening days of the conflict in 1941. Three years later, with Allied forces advancing across the central Pacific, plans were made to liberate the island in conjunction with operations against Saipan. Following the landings on Saipan and the victory at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, American troops came ashore on Guam on July 21. The initial weeks saw heavy fighting until Japanese resistance was finally broken in early August. Though the island was declared secure, it took several weeks to round up the remaining Japanese defenders. With the islands liberation, it was converted into a major base for Allied operations against the Japanese home islands. Background Situated in the Mariana Islands, Guam became a possession of the United States following the Spanish-American War in 1898.Ã Lightly defended, it was captured by Japan on December 10, 1941, three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor.Ã Following advances through the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, which saw places such as Tarawa and Kwajalein secured, Allied leaders commenced planning for a return to the Marianas in June 1944.Ã These plans initially called for landings on Saipan on June 15 with troops going ashore on Guam three days later.Ã The landings would be preceded by a series of aerial attacks by Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitschers Task Force 58 (Fast Carrier Task Force) and US Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bombers. Covered by Admiral Raymond A. Spruances Fifth Fleet, Lieutenant General Holland Smiths V Amphibious Corps began landing as planned on June 15 and opened the Battle of Saipan.Ã With fighting underway ashore, Major General Roy Geigers III Amphibious Corps began moving towards Guam.Ã Alerted to the approach of a Japanese fleet, Spruance canceled the June 18 landings and ordered the ships carrying Geigers men to withdraw from the area. Engaging the enemy, Spruance won a decisive victory at the Battle of the Philippine Sea on June 19-20 with his fleet sinking three Japanese aircraft carriers and destroying over 500 enemy aircraft. Despite the victory at sea, fierce Japanese resistance on Saipan forced the liberation of Guam to be postponed to July 21.Ã This, as well as fears that Guam could be more heavily fortified than Saipan, led to Major General Andrew D. Bruces 77th Infantry Division being added to Geigers command. Battle of Guam (1944) Conflict: World War II (1939-1945)Date: July 21 to August 10, 1944Armies and Commanders:AlliesMajor General Roy GeigerVice Admiral Richmond K. Turner59,401, menJapanLieutenant GeneralÃ Takeshi Takashina18,657 menCasualties:Allies: 1,783 killed and 6,010 woundedJapanese: approximately 18,337 killed and 1,250 captured Going Ashore Returning to the Marianas in July, Geigers underwater demolition teams scouted the landing beaches and commenced removing obstacles along Guams west coast.Ã Supported by naval gunfire and carrier aircraft, the landings moved forward on July 21 with Major General Allen H. Turnages 3rd Marine Division landing north of the Orote Peninsula and Brigadier General Lemuel C. Shepherds 1st Provisional Marine Brigade to the south.Ã Encountering intense Japanese fire, both forces gained the shore and began moving inland.Ã To support Shepherds men, Colonel Vincent J. Tanzolas 305th Regimental Combat Team waded ashore later in the day.Ã Overseeing the islands garrison,Ã Lieutenant GeneralÃ Takeshi Takashina began counterattacking the Americans but was unable to prevent them from penetrating 6,600 feet inland before nightfall (Map).Ã Ã nvasion of Guam, July 1944: Pre-invasion bombardment of Guam, seen from the battleship USS New Mexico (BB-40), July, 14, 1944. An amphibious command ship (AGC), probably Task Force 53 flagship USS Appalachian (AGC-1), is at left. Other ships present include a Farragut-class destroyer (right center), an old Wickes/Clemson-class fast transport (APD) and two landing craft, infantry (LCI). US Naval History and Heritage Command Fighting for the Island As the fighting continued, the remainder of the 77th Infantry Division landed on July 23-24.Ã Lacking sufficient Landing Vehicles Tracked (LVT), much of the division was forced to disembark on the reef offshore and wade to the beach.Ã The next day, Shepherds troops succeeded in cutting the base of the Orote Peninsula.Ã That night, the Japanese mounted strong counterattacks against both beachheads.Ã These were repelled with the loss of around 3,500 men.Ã With the failure of these efforts, Takashina began retreating from the Fonte Hill area near the northern beachhead.Ã In the process, he was killed in action on July 28 and succeeded byÃ Lieutenant General Hideyoshi Obata.Ã That same day, Geiger was able to unite the two beachheads and a day later secured the Orote Peninsula. Two officers plant the American flag on Guam eight minutes after US Marines and Army assault troops landed on the Central Pacific island on July 20, 1944. National Archives and Records Administration Pressing their attacks, American forces compelled Obata to abandon the southern part of the island in as Japanese supplies began to dwindle.Ã Withdrawing north, the Japanese commander intended to concentrate his men in the islands northern and central mountains.Ã After reconnaissance confirmed the enemys departure from southern Guam, Geiger turned his corps north with the 3rd Marine Division on the left and the 77th Infantry Division on the right.Ã Liberating the capital at Agana on July 31, American troops captured the airfield at Tiyan a day later.Ã Driving north, Geiger shattered the Japanese lines near Mount Barrigada on August 2-4.Ã Pushing the increasingly broken enemy north, US forces launched their final drive on August 7.Ã After three days of fighting, organized Japanese resistance effectively ended.Ã Aftermath Though Guam was declared secure, a large number of Japanese troops remained on the loose.Ã These were largely rounded up in the following weeks though one, Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi, held out until 1972.Ã Defeated, Obata committed suicide on August 11.Ã In the fighting for Guam, American forces suffered 1,783 killed and 6,010 wounded while Japanese losses numbered approximately 18,337 killed and 1,250 captured.Ã In the weeks after the battle, engineers transformed Guam into a major Allied base that included five airfields.Ã These, along with other airfields in the Marianas, gave USAAF B-29 Superfortresses bases from which to commence striking targets in the Japanese home islands.
Saturday, December 28, 2019
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 849 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/03/26 Category History Essay Level High school Topics: Julius Caesar Essay Did you like this example? Gaius Julius Augustus Germanicus Caesar was born on July 12 or July 13, 100 BCE, to the Praetor Gaius Julius Caesar, who controlled parts of Asia. His mother was a woman named Aurelia Cotta. When Julius became 16 years old, his father died. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Gaius Julius Augustus Germanicus Caesar" essay for you Create order Being the oldest man alive in the family, Julius became head of the Caesar family. Soon after, Gaius became the high priest of Jupiter (Zeus), the god of lightning, thunder, and the gods. After becoming the High Priest of Jupiter, he became engaged to a patrician girl named Cornelia Cinna. The empire of Rome soon became under the rule of Sulla and purged Rome of people who believed in the Populare Ideology, and of his political enemies, like Cornelias father. Sulla attempted to force Caesar to divorce Cornelia, who was the daughter of one of Sullas rivals. According to Ancient History.eu, The Populare ideology was about favoring a democratic government and giving more rights to the lower class citizens. Caesar then fled Rome in a hope to escape Sulla, but he was stripped of his role of high priest, and Cornelias dowry was stolen. Without money, Caesar joined the Roman Army. During the time in the army, Gaius was given many awards, such as the civic crown, and was promoted to the ranks of military legate of Bithynia to gain control of a fleet of ships. Caesar then moved back to Rome for a new life after Sulla died. In 75 BCE, Caesar was captured by a group of pirates and was to be ransomed for 20 marks. Julius argued he should be ransomed for 50 marks, because of his talents on the battlefield. During his time during the ransom, he maintained a good relationship with the pirates. It is said that Caesar threatened the pirates multiple times to let him go or else when he was let free, he would hunt them down and crucify them. The pirates took this as a joke, however, and didnt believe him. After Caesar was let free, he hunted them down and slit the pirates throat before their crucifixion. When he got back to Rome, he was honored as a military tribune when in Rome. He became a lawyer and was extremely successful. He then went to Rhodes to study philosophy. Cornelia soon died of giving birth to a stillborn child, and Caesar married the granddaughter of Sulla, Pompeia. According to biography.com, Caesar then created a private army and fought Mithridates VI (6) Eupator who declared war on Rome. Caesar was successful in his battle with Mithridates, and worked with Pompey, and went up in political status. They would soon divorce. With his close friends Pompey and Crassus in 60 BC, forming the first trimutive. The trimutive lasted 7 years. It would have lasted longer if Crassus was not killed in battle. Pompey soon saw Caesar as an enemy, because of his growing power. They fought, and the battle went to Egypt. Pompey was killed in Egypt by the hand of Caesar. Cleopatra and Caesar soon had an alliance and had a child. The childs name was Caesarion. Cleopatra wanted Caesar to take Caesarion to Rome, and make him his heir. However, Caesars heir was already Octavian. He kept his promise to take Caesarion to Rome. When Caesar arrived back to Rome, he was named emperor. Julius Caesar was a leader who favored his citizens. He got rid of taxes, initiated the police force, let former enemies go in the Caesar and more. There was a conspiracy of Caesar, and a group of senators, fearing their power, started to play an assassination on Caesar, expecting to be treated as heroes when the emperor fell to the ground, dead. They had a plan to kill Julius Caesar on March 15, 44 BC. He was given a warning of Beware the Ides of March. He chose to ignore it, as he did not understand. On the day of a Senate meeting, which was held on the Ides of March, he was talking to the senators, when a group of them stood up, with weapons in their hands, they went up, and stabbed Caesar 23 times. His last words were the phrase which translates to English as You too, Child? In William Shakespeares play, Julius Caesar, the last words of Caesar were Et tu, Brute? which means Even you, Brutus?. He died at the age of 55 8/12 ye ars old. The conspirators went out and said People of Rome, you are free. and were met by angry citizens. instead treated instead of heroes, but as criminals, for Rome loved Caesar. Especially the commoners, who enjoyed how Caesar treated them. His death was the end of the Roman Republic, and the start of the bloody Roman Empire. I believe that Caesar was a great man, who ruled justly and loved the people in Rome. It was nice to hear that Caesar made life easier for the Romans, and made it so the Roman Republic was at peace before he was assassinated. He didnt deserve his death, and if he were to live on, he would have reformed the Roman Republic, and make Rome better than ever.
Friday, December 20, 2019
Have you ever thought about how it would feel to be discriminated against, just for whom you love? If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t, that probably means youÃ¢â¬â¢re straight. Gays and lesbians all over the world often experience harassment, bias, fear, hate and more. And, itÃ¢â¬â¢s all because they love someone of the same gender.The discrimination doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just occur because of a same-sex couple being seen together. What gets narrow-minded people even more riled up is the thought of a same-sex couple being allowed to get married. According to Merriam-WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary, same-sex marriage is the state of being married to a person of the same sex or gender in a relationship like that of a traditional marriage. Throughout history, there have been naysayers that opposeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During the Holocaust, gays were persecuted along with Jews because they were viewed as Ã¢â¬Å"weak and unable to fight for Germany and unlikely to reproduce and contribute to the Nazi want of strengthening the Aryan raceÃ¢â¬ (Burns 44).As early as the 1920s, a more public fight for support began to surface. In 1924, Henry Gerber attempted to start AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s first gay association (Marcus). When that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really work, people tried again in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s with LGBT community movementsin cities such as NYC, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., and others (Burns 27-28). The LGBT community is very active today and even includes support straight members! Throughout recent history, terminology has been affected by the movement. The word gay, which originally meant Ã¢â¬Å"happy,Ã¢â¬ started to mean Ã¢â¬Å"homosexualÃ¢â¬ in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. It was around this time when gay rights activists thought the word was better than using Ã¢â¬Å"homosexualÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"homophilesÃ¢â¬ (Marcus 40). But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t all rainbows and support. If you were gay in the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s and earlier, and you acte d couple-y with your significantother in public, you mightÃ¢â¬â¢ve been harassed by strangers and possibly be breaking the law (Marcus 69). At that time, individuals in the medical and psychology fields claimed that being attracted to someone of the same gender was a mental illness until it was removed from the list in 1973 by the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association (Marcus 27). Whenever